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【转载】网上分享--几个好看的LACE图解  

2012-08-31 10:20:45|  分类: 棒针蕾丝 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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The Shape of Lace

Move beyond the rectangular stole! In Part I of a two-part series, Shirley Paden shows how lace is created.

By Shirley Paden

To understand hand-knit lace as it relates to shaping garment sections, we will take a close look at the key structural elements used in lace-stitch pattern construction. A solid understanding of the basics will prepare you to easily overlay shapes onto stitch patterns.

In this article we will study four different lace patterns: Lace Knitting (Single-Sided), Knitted Lace (Double Sided), Alternating Stitch Count (number of stitches changes on different rows) and Single Row Lace (one lace row in each pattern repeat). We will identify what happens during the knitting process before we pick up our needles. The purpose of this exercise is to recognize the path of the construction elements and how they are used to build out the lace motifs.

Trellised Leaf
Trellised Leaf In this example of lace knitting, the leaves are formed using the "Half Drop" format. Notice how the rows of leaf motifs stagger to create an undulating border.

Our first sample will be a Single-Sided Lace pattern. We will compare both the written and charted versions of that pattern to get a good feel for the pattern structure. With the remaining three lace types, the written example will be omitted here, but I recommend that you try writing the patterns if you are not completely at ease working from a chart.

Begin by carefully examining the stitch key, then writing each line of the pattern, surrounding the actual pattern repeat by asterisks. After each written row, count the number of stitches between the asterisks, then count the plus stitches to make certain that the number of stitches you have recorded is correct for that line before moving on.
 

LACE STRUCTURE
The layout of a lace pattern is no different in its basic structure than any other knit stitch pattern, in that it is constructed over a specific number of stitches and rows. These constitute the pattern repeat. If worked flat, most patterns will also have extra stitches at either the beginning or the end of each row (or both) that fall outside the pattern repeats. They are called “plus” stitches and are represented with the “+” sign in the written instructions; e.g., “pattern is a multiple of 8 + 3.” In a written lace pattern, stitch repeats will be bordered by asterisks. For symmetry, many patterns have a different number of plus stitches before the beginning and/or after the ending repeats.
 

EXAMINING EACH COMPONENT

Trellised Leaf Pattern Chart
Click here to view chart larger in a PDF format.
Frost Flowers
Frost Flowers This classic, feminine pattern is often used in garment design. the swatch combines knitted lace for hte petals with lace knitting for the bands of eyelet chevrons. (See VK Holiday 2006 #6.)
Frost Flowers Pattern Chart
Click here to view chart larger in a PDF format.
The two shaping components: The yarn over (increase) and the decrease form the basic structure of all lace patterns, and there must be a balance of increases and decreases in order to control the width of the fabric. These basic components can be arranged either vertically [see Trellised Leaf Pattern chart PDF] or horizontally [see Fan & Feather chart PDF].

Yarn Over: In all knit fabric construction, stitches are held together as the fabric is made by a continuous flow of the yarn between them. This linking yarn is called the “running” thread. Since a yarn over is a “bridge” between two stitches, it is made by simply diverting the running thread up and over the needle. When the stitch is diverted, the yarn has to cross the right-hand needle in a way that enables it to lie in the same direction as an untwisted stitch.

The way of carrying the yarn up and over the needle so that it can be in that position will differ depending on the types of stitches that are being made on either side of the yarn over. They are as follows: from knit stitch to knit stitch (bring yarn to front, then knit the next stitch); from knit stitch to purl stitch (bring yarn to front, then over the needle, then to the front again); from purl stitch to purl stitch (take yarn over needle to back, then forward to front again); and from purl stitch to knit stitch (leave yarn in front for British-style knitting; work as purl stitch to purl stitch for Continental-style knitting).

If you cannot remember the four movements, just think about how the yarn should cross the rIght-hand needle (RHN) at the conclusion of the technique. If your pattern includes a double yarn over, count it as two stitches. Remember that on the next row you are going to knit into the first yarn over and purl into the second.

Decreases: These are the decorative components, which give form to the stitch pattern. Both single and double decreases involve working the stitches together into a single stitch. For single decreases, one stitch is decreased from two stitches; for double decreases, two stitches are decreased from three stitches.

With the exception of the vertical double decrease, all other decreases will cause the fabric to slant either to the left or the right. When symbols on the chart are drawn for wrong-side rows (WSRs), the indication is for the way the fabric is going to slant on the right side (RS). Examples of left-slanting single decreases are SSK (RS) and SSP (WS). Examples of right-slanting single decreases are K2tog (RS) and P2tog (WS). Examples of left-slanting double decreases are K3tog tbl (RS) and P3tog tbl (WS). Examples of right-slanting double decreases are K3tog (RS) and P3tog (WS). Examples of vertical double decreases are Sl 2-K1-P2SSO (RS) and Sl 2-P1-P2SSO (WS). On any written pattern, remember that all decreases are counted as one stitch; e.g., P3tog and Sl 2-K1-P2SSO are both counted as one stitch. To my knowledge, triple decreases are rarely used.
 

TYPES OF KNIT LACE

Spade Stitch Pattern
Spade Stitch Here, the pattern rows have alternating stitch counts to compensate for additional increases on certain rows.
Spade Stitch Pattern Chart
Click here to view chart larger in a PDF format.
Fan and Feather Pattern
Fan & Feather The heavily scalloped border, created with "stacked" increases and decreases, makes this stitch perfect for shals and baby blankets. It also provides a fanciful alternative to ribbing on sweaters.
Fan and Feather Pattern Chart
Click here to view chart larger in a PDF format.
Lace Knitting (Single-Sided): With these stitch patterns, the lace pattern is worked on every other row with one purl row in between. The patterns are easier to follow, since there is always a “breather” row between lace rows and the lace construction always continues from the same starting point that is the beginning of each RSR. For our swatching example we will be working with the Trellised Leaf Pattern.

Knitted Lace (Double-Sided): With these stitch patterns, the lace motifs are constructed on every row. Some of the more gossamer lacestitch patterns call for this technique. An easy way to determine which of the two techniques has been used on a lace piece is to look for the purl-stitch twists in the yarn overs. Most pattern stitches use one method or the other, but several combine the two techniques. The Frost Flowers pattern is an example of a lace structure in which one part of the pattern is worked in lace knitting and one part is worked in knitted lace.

Alternating Stitch Count: These are stitch patterns that increase on one row, then decrease back to the established number of stitches in the pattern repeat on another. For our swatching example we will be working with the Spade Stitch pattern, shown on page 52. When you examine the chart you will notice an extra increase (YO) on every other row (RSR). On every following row (WSR) you will see that decreases are worked to bring the repeat count back to the original number of stitches. You will note that at the close of each diamond shape there are two single increases on the last RSR. On the following WSR a double decrease is worked to match each of the two increases.
 

SINGLE ROW LACE
These types of stitch patterns are classified as Horizontal Lace patterns. For our swatching example we will be using the Fan & Feather Pattern, sometimes referred to as Old Shale. When you look at the chart, you will see that the lace components do, in fact, line up horizontally across the row. A closer examination of its true structure, however, reveals that it is an example of a stockinette pattern punctuated by one lace row on every fourth row. An examination of the two lace components will show that yarn overs lift the fabric while decreases push the fabric down. A set number of yarn overs are placed side by side with a matching number of decreases. They are placed in the same position each time (on every fourth row), which means they are “stacked” along the length of the fabric. The stacking of the components exaggerates the lifting and lowering movement of the lace design. This results in a beautiful undulation at the base of the fabric. Shaping the fabric with this pattern is accomplished more easily than with other types of lace patterns.
 

SWATCH NOTES
In knitting our four swatches, there are several points to keep in mind.
1. As with any knitting project, it is wise to read through the entire pattern before beginning.
2. Use a stretchy cast on such as a knit-on or purl-on cast on so that the bottom edge will stretch to accommodate the undulations at the base of the fabric. Purl across the first row if you are using either of these two cast ons. The purl row will be a WSR. Begin the actual pattern on the following row. Starting this way will result in small stretchy loops at the bottom. They will expand and make a decorative bottom edge.
3. When casting on for your swatch, check the chart to be sure that you are casting on the correct number of stitches so that the pattern is centered. Place markers to separate the selvage stitches, plus stitches and pattern repeats.
4. When constructing your fabric, you will always want to determine where your visual markers are in the pattern. Begin by studying the stitch key, then follow the movement of the symbols on the chart. Observe how the components flow across the repeats, how the repeats flow into one another and how the pattern is balanced at the top, bottom and sides. Study why and how certain techniques are used (e.g., double decreases) and what is scheduled to happen on different rows.
5. Remember, when you have finished knitting your swatch, the fabric will be compressed. This is the case with all lace-stitch patterns. Steam or wet-block your swatch to the proper width so that the lace pattern is stretched to its fullest. Always take your gauge on the stretched piece.
6. It is a good idea to border your pattern with selvage stitches (shown with a plus symbol on the charts). This separates the actual pattern stitches from seaming stitches. On your swatch, measurements for gauge should be taken inside the selvage stitches. A garter-stitch selvage is a good one. This type of selvage will also help your work to lie flat and not curl at the sides. If your pattern does not include a selvage, simply cast on two additional stitches. Remember not to include them in your stitch count when you are following the instructions.
 

THE SWATCHES
Note: Do not bind off swatches. Slip stitches to holders and store for use in the second part of my shaping article in the Spring/Summer ‘08 issue.

1. Trellised Leaf Pattern (Lace Knitting Swatch):
Follow the chart and cast on 61 stitches. The stitch pattern is a multiple of 19 + 2 + 2 selvage sts/32 rows. Swatch = 3 pattern repeats of 19 + 2 +2 selvage/work 64 rows. It is a 32-row, Single-Sided Lace pattern.

In this example, the leaves are formed using the Half Drop format. The structure is given this name because in each pattern repeat, half of the pattern drops down lengthwise as it takes shape. With this type of pattern structure the construction begins with the top half of every other motif and the bottom half of the alternate motifs. After half the pattern rows are worked, the construction position of the two diamonds is reversed. Many lace patterns are constructed using this format. With these types of patterns it is very easy to see if the pattern is balanced, since half motifs (or, in this case, half leaves) are always formed at the bottom, top and along each side at the completion of a repeat.

While knitting, note the following: The yarn overs and decreases that are worked side by side are forming the trellis. The leaves are formed with a decrease/stockinette-stitch combination. The pattern is worked in two halves. On the first 16 rows, it is building out the bottom half of every other leaf and the top half of the remaining leaves. On the second 16 rows that process is reversed. When there are four sets of netting holes stacked in the trellis (Row #7), the stem is finished on the leaves where the tops are being built at the beginning of the repeat. Construction on new leaves begins on the foll RSR (Row #9). For the leaves where the central section is being constructed at the beginning of the repeat, the four stacked rows of holes that end the stem are worked on rows 17 to 23. On Row #15 the markers slide forward as the center of the leaves in the first half are finished and the stems begin. This happens on row 31 for the second set of leaves. Watch for the K2togs and SSKs coming together as the center veins of the leaves are constructed. These are all visual markers that help you clearly see the structure of the pattern.

Look carefully at what the decrease is building: a finished stem of a leaf. With double decreases, look to see if the motif is being closed at the top. Double decreases are often used for this purpose. Also when using double decreases, observe whether or not the pattern repeat will slide forward on the row or borrow beginning stitches from the upcoming repeat. This would necessitate moving the repeat separation markers. This “slip” or “borrow” technique is very common when closing the tops of motifs.

As you knit the remaining three swatches, observe how the lace is being constructed on each. For example, with the Spade pattern, look at where the pattern increases fall when building the motifs. When knitting the Frost Flowers swatch, watch as the pattern is formed, then note what happens on the rows in which the increases line up on one half of the row and the decreases on the other. As you work the Fan & Feather pattern, try repositioning the repeat separation markers on the first WSR after the lace row. This will give you a good feel for the “borrowing and returning” technique used on the lace row for the P2togs as they use the stitches from the K1, YO portion of the pattern. Remember, one of the key purposes of the swatching exercise here is to have you begin to “read” your work as it is constructed, so you can observe the pattern movement on the chart. It is important to look for the balance of the yarn overs and decreases. This will become a key element when you begin to shape.

2. Frost Flowers: Pattern = Multiple of 17 + 1 + 2 selvage sts / 28 rows. Swatch = 3 repeats of 17 + 1 + 2 selvage sts = 54 sts / work 56 rows.
3. Spade Stitch: Pattern = Multiple of 18 + 1 + 2 selvage sts / 12 rows. Swatch = 3 repeats of 18 + 1 + 2 selvage sts = 57 sts / work 48 rows.
4. Fan & Feather: Pattern = Multiple of 24 + 2 selvage sts / 4 rows. Swatch = 2 repeats of 24 + 2 selvage sts = 50 sts / work 48 rows.

If you can work in Single-Sided, Double-Sided and Alternating Stitch Count lace patterns, read and interpret the three types of charts, and create a chart from a written pattern, you will have the necessary skills to work any lace pattern. In Part II you will learn to shape in lace and never be intimidated by a sleeve or neckline again.

VK INSTRUCTIONS

Trellised Leaf Pattern

Rows 1, 3, 5 and 7 S, k1, *ssk, k3, yo, (ssk, yo) twice, k1, (yo, k2tog) twice, yo, k3, k2tog*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 2 and all alternate rows S, purl to last st, S.
Row 9 S, k1, *ssk, k2, yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k3, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, k2, k2tog*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 11 S, k1, *ssk, k1, yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k5, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, k1, k2tog*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 13 S, K1, * ssk, yo, (K2tog, yo) twice, K7, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, K2tog *; rep from * to *, end K1, M1, S.
NOTE: On this row you must increase 1 stitch (M1) between the last K1 and the Selvage (S) stitch to prepare for row 15 when the last stitch of each repeat will be joined in a SSK with the first stitch of the following repeat. Without the M1 stitch on row 13, row 15 would be one stitch short.
Row 15 S, ssk, *yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k3, k2tog, k4, yo, (ssk, yo) twice ssk*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
NOTE: This is the only row with an extra stitch. The last k1 stitch will become a part of the pattern. The M1 stitch from row #13 will become the new k1 stitch at the end of the row before the selvage stitch. On this row each pattern repeat slides forward as the center vein of the leaf (\ /) crosses to become the beginning of the stem. Since the row slides forward one stitch, at the beginning of the row the k1 is eliminated as it becomes a part of the first ssk decrease.
Rows 17, 19, 21 and 23 S, k1 *(yo, k2tog) twice, yo, k3, k2tog, ssk, k3, yo, (ssk, yo) twice, k1*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 25 S, k1, *k1, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, k2, k2tog, ssk, k2, yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k2*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 27 S, k1, *k2, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, k1, k2tog, ssk, k1, yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k3*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.
Row 29 S, k1, *k3, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, k2tog, ssk, yo, (k2tog, yo) twice, k4*; rep from * to *, end S.
Row 31 S, k1, *k4, (yo, ssk) twice, yo, ssk, (yo, k2tog) twice, yo, k3, k2tog*; rep from * to *, end k1, S.

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